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Door: Nasser Mohamud
Somalia On The Rise: Never Forget Who You Are and Where You Came From....

My parents fled Somalia before the start of the civil war with all their 5 kids including myself. They moved to Qatar where we all lived there for a short period of time. After that we all came to the Netherlands to start a new life and thank God we are still living there for nearly 20 years.

So my siblings and I grew up in the Netherlands, it was our new home away from our former home. The Netherlands gave us a second chance at life, we had many opportunities such as a proper education, a happy childhood etc….My wonderful parents (which I love dearly) made sure we never bit the hand that fed us and reminded us how much we owe to The Netherlands!



But at the same time they also reminded us never to forget who we were and where we came from! However, growing up I must say I didn´t pay attention to who I was and where I came from. I could speak Dutch fluently and I was well integrated so I had no worries in Holland. However, as I got older I began to think about my roots, culture and heritage. Also, as I started travelling around the world it seemed weird to say that I am from Holland or that I was Dutch because no one would believe me even though I am living in the Netherland for so long!

All this made me search for my Somali identity. Also again, the media and the news mentioning all but negativity, which unfortunately only creates a bad image about Somalia and its people, made me more curious about my homeland!

Many of the Somali people fled abroad due to the civil war so the Somali diaspora contains many of the country’s smart and educated professionals. So the way I look at it is that each and every Somali has the power to influence the world’s perception of Somalia. So the Somali diaspora can play a positive role in helping the country and creating a positive image in the world.

How? From the way we interact with those of other cultures! All Somali’s who are living abroad like myself are undoubtedly unique and have the ability to communicate with the world in any language! So through my experiences, interest, education and travels I came to the conclusion that have if I can’t bring the world to Somalia, I will bring Somalia to the world insha'Allah (God willing)……

Soomaaliya | Somalia | الصومال

Since the outbreak of the Somali Civil War in 1991 there has been no central government control over most of the country’s territory. And because there is no central government to maintain law and order in Somalia today, lawlessness, robbery and piracy are very rampant and Somalia remains one of the poorest and most violent countries in the world today.  

But was this always the case? How was Somalia before that and what’s the history of the country?? With all the negativity and bad publicity surrounding Somalia, I decided to do research and gather as much as facts about Somalia as possible to enlighten the world and anyone who is interested, about Somalia, Somalis and the Somali peninsula and related.

Fact #1

The Somali people constitute one of the largest and most populous ethnic groups in the African continent. Somalis alone number 20 million in East Africa and can be found in large numbers not only in Somalia itself but also Djibouti, Ethiopia, Kenya and Yemen. 

"Somalia". World Factbook. Central Intelligence Agency. 2009-05-14. Retrieved 2009-05-31.

Fact #2

Somalia and Somalis have a very long and rich history. And as the country has the longest coast in continental Africa, it is one of the oldest sea-faring and trading nations in the world.

Somalia has a number of ancient trading/port cities on both its Indian ocean cost and Gulf of Aden coast. With historically the wealthiest being the 1,000 year old city of Mogadishu. Others include Kismaayo, Berbera, Barawe, Merca, Las Qoray, Hobyo etc.

Maritime history of Somalia refers to the seafaring tradition of the Somali people. It includes various stages of Somali navigational technology, shipbuilding and design, as well as the history of the Somali port cities. It also covers the historical sea routes taken by Somali sailors which sustained the commercial enterprises of the historical Somali kingdoms and empires, in addition to the contemporary maritime culture of Somalia.

Ancient Somali port cities
The most prominent cities of the Old World from the Periplus of the Erythraean Sea


In ancient times, the port city of Opone traded with merchants from Phoenicia, Egypt, Greece, Persia and the Roman Empire, and connected with traders from as far afield as Indonesia and Malaysia, exchanging spices, silks and other goods. 


Ancient port where sailors on their way to India could take refuge from the storms of the Indian Ocean. 

Cape Guardafui 

Known in ancient times as the Cape of Spices, it was an important place for the ancient cinnamon and Indian spice trade. 


The most important ancient port city of the Somali Peninsula, it handled a considerable amount of the Indian Ocean trade through its large ships and extensive harbour. 


Ancient port city known for its commerce in frankincense and myrrh in exchange for cloaks, copper and gold from Arsinoe and India. 


Ancient port engaged in the fragrant gum and cinnamon trade with the Hellenic world. 


The "City of Mogadishu" on Fra Mauro's medieval map who created the most detailed and accurate map of the world up on 1450 ca. On Fra Mauro's map Somali Beden ship are depictated. 

Medieval Somali port citie


Somalia in the Middle Ages was one of the most important port cities in the Horn of Africa.Barawa – Old port city in Somalia, which in the medieval era came under the influence of Mogadishu and the later Ajuuraan Empire.


Dominant port city on the Gulf of Aden that had trade relations with the Tang Dynasty of China


Medieval center of trade that handled smaller vessels sailing from India, Arabia, Persia and the Far East. 


One of the commercial centers of the Ajuuraans and an important port city for the pilgrimage (hajj) to Mecca. 


Sister city of Mogadishu and an important trade outlet during the Gobroon Dynasty. 


Prominent medieval port city that collaborated with the Mogadishans in the Indian Ocean trade. 


The most important medieval city in East Africa and initiator of the East African gold trade. Before the period of civil strife, Mogadishu continued its historical position as the pre-eminent port city of East Africa. 


Zeila, Somalia in the Middle Ages was one of the most important port cities in the Horn of Africa. 

Early modern and present Somali port cities


A Dervish city that was utilized for the weapons trade during the Scramble for Africa. Today, Eyl is a growing port city


The northern port hub of Bosaso stands as one of the fastest growing cities in Somalia.Qandala – An important port city in the 18th and 19th centuries for the pilgrimage to Mecca, and for the caravan trains that came from the castle city of Botiala. 

Las Khorey

Capital of the Warsangali Sultanate, it was at its zenith during the late 18th century. Today, the port continues to export mainly marine products. Somali environmentalist Fatima Jibrell is re-developing the centuries-old port with the aim of creating immediate employment for local residents. Over the long-term, this effort is intended to boost import and export opportunities to Somalia's northern coastal region, and thus also help rebuild communities and livelihoods.


An important port city in the 18th and 19th centuries for the pilgrimage to Mecca, and for the caravan trains that came from the castle city of Botiala.


The northern port hub of Bosaso stands as one of the fastest growing cities in Somalia

Charles Geshekter, "Somali Maritime History and Regional SubCultures: A Neglected Theme of the Somali Crisis
E. H. Warmington, The Commerce Between the Roman Empire and India, (South Asia Books: 1995), p.54

The Arabian Seas: The Indian Ocean World of the Seventeenth Century By R. J. Barendse
Gujarat and the Trade of East Africa pg.30

Historical relations across the Indian Ocean: report and papers of the - Page 23

Chittick, Neville (1975). An Archaeological Reconnaissance of the Horn: The British-Somali Expedition. pp. 117–133.
The Culture of the East African Coast: In the Seventeenth and Eighteenth Centuries in the Light of Recent Archaeological Discoveries, By Gervase Mathew pg 68

Fact #3

About 43% of the camels, 10% of sheep, 5% of goats and 2% of cattle, of the livestock population of Africa, are found in Somalia.

Somalia, famous for the Berbera Blackhead/Somali Sheep, has one of the largest numbers of livestock in the world - including the largest number of camels in the world. With this comes immense potential for meat, dairy products, leather products, hides and skins etc. and so far only a fraction of this industry potential has been tapped into.

Somalis, up and down the long coast of the land that they inhabit from Djibouti to the Somali hinterland and down to Ras Kambooni, have long since been trading with the middle and far east. Part of this trade has been the trade in livestock and meat. That trade has grown exponentially over the decades and years, to become very lucrative. The Somali livestock is mostly free from some of the diseases that have plagued other livestock-trading nations and much of the livestock in Somalia, especially the Somali Sheep or Berbera Blackhead, is native to the Somali Peninsula.

The unique way in which Somali nomads raise and rear their livestock, including the thousands of species of native plants the livestock is fed, means that it has a very unique and organic nature. The meat of Somali sheep is considered premium meat in the Gulf countries and is favoured over any other meat.

A recent BBC article detailed:
It may come as another surprise that two northern Somali ports account for 95% of all goat and 52% of all sheep exports for the entire East African region.

According to the London-based Chatham House think-tank, the export of livestock through these ports, and the nearby port of Djibouti, represents what "is said to be the largest movement of live animal - 'on the hoof' - trade anywhere in the world".

I recently visited one of these ports, Berbera, in the self-declared Republic of Somaliland, where port manager Ali Xoorxoor told me: "I expect livestock exports from the port to increase dramatically from three million head of livestock in 2011 to 4.5 million in 2012. 

"This is because of healthy demand from the Gulf, especially Saudi Arabia, and new markets emerging in Egypt, Syria and Oman. The Egyptians are especially fond of our camels, mainly for meat."

The livestock trade has exploded since Somalia's government imploded in 1991.

One trader told me exports from the northern ports alone is worth more than $2bn (£1.3bn) a year; this does not appear to be an exaggeration, when one considers that just one sheep is worth at least $30 and a camel several hundre

Livestock Production in Somalia with Special Emphasis on Camels
Ahmed A. Elmi, Nomadic Peoples, No. 29, Camel Pastoralism in the Horn of Africa (1991), pp. 87-103

BBC, 2012. “Somalia: Far from a failed state?” BBC[Online]. BBC website ‘12. Available at:

Fact #4

Somalia is known as "The nation of Poets".
Poetry is an integral part to Somali culture and society. It is not unusual for mothers to have composed a poem for many if not all of their children; In Somalia poetry is used in advertising, in plays, in music; it is used very much in politics and can sometimes even be decisive! A business does not open without a poem for the occasion; any major events within your family might have several poems composed by family members; weddings are often celebrated with a particular style of poetry called the 'buraanbur'.

Any major national event will usually have several poems published about it. If anything was a national/cultural tradition of the Somali people, it is poetry.

“Poetry has a special place in Somali life. The eminent Somali language scholar, the late professor B.W. Andrezejewski noted: When Sir Richard Burton visited Somalis in 1854 he found that the most striking characteristic of its inhabitants was their love of poetry… so that the phrase ‘a nation of poets’ became current among people acquainted with the horn of Africa.

This volume by Andrezejewski makes available in beautiful English translation the very best, and most universal, of Somali poetry, from the 19th century to the present.

The Somali devotion to poetry is more than an appreciation of an ancient form, described by Andrezejewski as ‘reminiscent of Classical Greek’.

Somalia - The Untold Story: The War Through the Eyes of Somali Women Door Judith Gardner,Judy El Bushra

B.W. & Sheila Andrezejewski (1993) An Anthology of Somali Poetry (Indiana: Indiana Univeristy Press.)

Dahobo Farah Hassan et al (1995) ‘Somalia: Poetry as Resistance Against Colonialism and Patriarchy’, in Saskia Wieringa (ed.) Subversive Women: Historical Experines of Gender and Resistance (London: Zed Books.)    

Fact #5

Somalia has mountainous landscapes.
Many people who are not familliar with Somalia think that Somalia is one big flat desert county. Well, it is not. Somalia has varying landscapes including a mountain belt that stretches from West to East across the country's northern regions. Its a very scenic landscape to drive through.

Here are some pictures of Somalia's mountainous landscapes.


Buurta Daalo in Sanaag, Somalia


Cal Madow mountains in Sanaag, Somalia


The Juba River downstream from Jamame in Somalia. Bridge over the Jubba river in Baardheere, Somalia

Fact #6

Somalia was very supportive of various anti-colonial movements.
The late president of Somalia, Siad Barre, was the only head of state to attend Mozambique's independence celebrations.

Along with then fellow communists the Soviet Union and Cuba, Somalia also sent martial reinforcements to assist the government of Samora Machel against Rhodesian and Portuguese forces. Rhodesian guerrillas in Maputo at the time "bragged to Portuguese correspondents that Somali tanks will be used in future operations against Ian Smith’s forces.

In their struggle against the Rhodesians, Zambia appealed to other African countries for military support. On the 27th of June 1977, President Kenneth David Kaunda speaking to a crowd of Zambians in Lusaka announced that Somalia's armed forces were prepared to aid his country against the Rhodesians. Somali Air Force pilots stood on standby to fly Zambian Migs in case of a war.


The Somali–Soviet Union friendship and later partnership with the United States enabled Somalia to build the largest mechanised army on the continent

Somalia's late government lent support to various anti-colonial movements, including the rebellion in South Africa against that country's then ruling apartheid government.

As chairman of the Organisation of African Unity (OAU) in 1974, a rotating seat, the President of Somalia invited the ANC as an equal member and gave them a platform to have their voices heard.

Somalia's government also trained South African guerillas and gave them access to military hardware and naval assets.


Benjamin Frankel, The Cold War, 1945–1991: Leaders and other important figures in the Soviet Union, Eastern Europe, China, and the Third World, (Gale Research: 1992), p.306.

Roger Pfister, Apartheid South Africa and African states: from pariah to middle power, 1961–1994, Volume 14, (I.B.Tauris, 2005), pp.114-117.

Soviet intervention and the Ogaden counter-offensive of 1978 by Mark Urban pg 42

Benjamin Frankel, The Cold War, 1945–1991: Leaders and other important figures in the Soviet Union, Eastern Europe, China, and the Third World, (Gale Research: 1992), p.306.

Roger Pfister, Apartheid South Africa and African states: from pariah to middle power, 1961–1994, Volume 14, (I.B.Tauris, 2005), pp.114-117.

Soviet intervention and the Ogaden counter-offensive of 1978 by Mark Urban pg 42

Fact #7

For more than 1400 years, Islam made a great part of Somali society. Islam has been present in Somalia since the very beginning times of the religion around the 7th century. This is evident from the many centuries-old mosques that are to be found in Somalia - From the mosque in Zeila to the old mosques in Berbera, Xaafuun all the way to Mogadishu, Merca, Barawe and Kismaayo.

For centuries, Arba Rukun (1269), the Friday mosque of Merca (1609) and Fakr ad-Din (1269) were, in fact, the only mosques in East Africa to have minarets.

Zeila's two-mihrab Masjid al-Qiblatayn dates to the 7th century


Ancient mosque in the historic town of Zeila Ancient mosque in the historic town of Zeila. It was on the 13th century that came to the light, in Horn of Africa, one of the strongest Empire that existed in East Africa. The Adal Empire….


 13th century Arba Rukuun Mosque, Mogadishu


The whitewashed coral stone city of Merca is an ancient Islamic center in Somalia.


13th century Fakr ad-Din mosquebuilt by Fakr ad-Din, the first Sultan of the Mogadishu Sultanate and 
17th century mosque in Hafun, Somalia. 

Briggs, Phillip (2012). Somaliland. Bradt Travel Guides. p. 7. ISBN 1841623717.

Briggs, Philip (2012). Bradt Somaliland: With Addis Ababa & Eastern Ethiopia. Bradt Travel Guides. p. 10. ISBN 1841623717.

Encyclopedia Americana, Volume 25. Americana Corporation. 1965. p. 255.
Houtsma, M. Th (1987). E.J. Brill's First Encyclopaedia of Islam, 1913-1936. BRILL. pp. 125–126. ISBN 9004082654.

Sir Reginald Coupland, East Africa and its invaders: from the earliest times to the death of Seyyid Said in 1856, (Russell & Russell: 1965), p. 38.


Fact #8

Some of the earliest known cave paintings in the African continent are Somalia's Laas Geel's rock art, estimated to date back to somewhere between 5,000–9,000 BCE.


Las Geel ancient cave paintings in Somalia 

Inscriptions have been found beneath many of the rock paintings, but archaeologists have so far been unable to decipher this form of ancient writing. Somalia's ancient rock-art shows the first mounted horsemen: The scientist and archaeologist Sada Mire and her team recently revealed 5,000-year-old rock art in Somalia that included a drawing of a mounted hunter.


Cow and a heard of cows 


A human and a cow

Laas Geel Cave Paintings are world renowned and among the oldest cave painting in the African Continent. Furthermore, the oldest evidence of burial customs in the Horn of Africa comes from cemeteries in Somalia dating back to 4th millennium BC


Various rock art 

The Journal of African Archeology Volume 1.2 (2003) Chapter 3

Bakano, Otto (April 24, 2011). "Grotto galleries show early Somali life". AFP. Retrieved 11 May 2013.

Istituto universitario orientale (Naples, Italy) (1992). Annali: Supplemento, Issues 70-73. Istituto orientale di Napoli. p. 57.

"Rock Art Sites of Somaliland". CyArk. Retrieved 28 March 2014.

Michael Hodd, East African Handbook, (Trade & Travel Publications: 1994), p.640.

Fact #9

Domestication of Camels

People in the Somali peninsula region domesticated the camel somewhere between the third millennium and second millennium BC from where it spread to Ancient Egypt and North Africa. Rock art in Somalia illuminate the oldest depictions of Camels (Las Geel Fact #8). 

Today Somalia has the largest camel population in the world of any individual country. The larger Somali peninsula region inhabited by the Somali people contains the largest camel population in the world.


The Horn of Africa has the world's largest population of camels.

There are around 14 million camels alive as of 2010, with 90% being dromedaries. Dromedaries alive today are domesticated animals(mostly living in the Horn of Africa, the Sahel, Maghreb, Middle East andSouth Asia). The Horn region alone has the largest concentration of camels in the world, where the dromedaries constitute an important part of local nomadic life. They provide nomadic people in Somalia (which has the largest camel herd in the world)[14] and Ethiopia with milk, food, and transportation.

Dolby, Karen (10 August 2010). You Must Remember This: Easy Tricks & Proven Tips to Never Forget Anything, Ever Again. Random House Digital, Inc. p. 170. ISBN 9780307716255.

Bernstein, William J. (2009). A Splendid Exchange: How Trade Shaped the World. Grove Press. p. 56. ISBN 9780802144164.

Milk & Dairy Products. FAO's Animal Production and Health Division. 25 September 2012. Retrieved6 December 2012.

Abokor, Axmed Cali (1987). The Camel in Somali Oral Tradition. Nordic Africa Institute. pp. 7,10, 11. ISBN 9789171062697.

"Drought threatening Somali nomads, UN humanitarian office says". UN News Centre. 14 November 2003. Retrieved7 December 2012. A four-year drought is threatening the lives of Somali nomads, and those of the camel herds on which they depend for transportation and milk

Farah, K. O.; Nyariki, D. M.; Ngugi, R. K.; Noor, I. M.; Guliye, A. Y. (2004). "The Somali and the Camel: Ecology, Management and Economics". Anthropologist 6 (1): 45–55. Somali pastoralists are a camel community...There is no other community in the world where the camel plays such a pivotal role in the local economy and culture as in the Somali community. According to the UN Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO, 1979) estimates, there are approximately 15 million dromedary camels in the world Plain text version.

Fact #10

Somalia's connection with China dates back further than many realize.

Relations between Somalia and China long predate the Middle Ages. Through trade, the peoples of both areas established good relations. Giraffeszebras and incense were exported to the Ming Empire of China, which established Somali merchants as leaders in the commerce between the Asia and the Horn of Africa, and in the process influenced the Chinese language with the Somali language and vice versa.

The Chinese exported celadon waresspices and muskets in return for horses, exotic animals and ivory. The prominent Hui-Chinese explorermariner,diplomat and fleet admiralZheng He, arrived in his fourth and fifth voyage to the Somali cities of MogadishuZeilaMerca and BerberaSa'id of Mogadishu a Somali explorer travelled to China in the 14th century, when China was ruled by theYuan Dynasty, and noted the trading communities of the Chinese ports and cities.


Exotic animals such as the giraffecaught and sold by Somali merchants were very popular in medieval China.

The ruler of the Somali Ajuuran Sultanate sent ambassadors to China to establish diplomatic ties, creating the first ever recorded African community in China. In return, Emperor Yongle, the third emperor of the Ming Dynasty (1368-1644), dispatched one of the largest fleets in history to trade with the nation. The fleet, under the leadership of the famed Hui Muslim Zheng He, arrived at Mogadishu while the city was at its zenith. Along with gold, frankincense and fabrics, Zheng brought back the first ever African wildlife to China, which included hippos, giraffes and gazelles.

Taken aback by the interest that China had in its goods, Somali rulers continued to trade with China and developed an unbreakable bond. As formal trade had ceased with Somalia in the latter part of the Ming Dynasty, archaeologists have found coins that date to the succeeding Qing Dynasty (1644-1911), showing that China's interests in Somalia were ongoing.



China Africa, 2011. “Somalia: The China-Africa Prototype” by Ali [Online]. ChinaAfrica website ‘11. Available at:

Colour, confusion and concessions: the history of the Chinese in South Africa, 2005, Melanie Yap,Dianne Leong Man, page 3

East Africa and its Invaders pg.37

Zheng He's voyages down the western seas - Page 42, 福建省新闻办公室

Fact #11

Although the commonly stated narrative is that the Somali language was unwritten until the 1970's, this is in fact incorrect. Throughout different period in time, Somalis have used a number of writing systems including an ancient script that archaeologists have so far been unable to decipher, wadaads writing, Somali-Arabo, Osmanya script, Borama script, the Kadarre Alphabet and now the recent Somali Latin Alphabet.[/B]

A number of writing systems have been used over the years for transcribing the language. Of these, the Somali alphabet is the most widely used, and has been the official writing script in Somalia since the government of former President of Somalia Mohamed Siad Barre formally introduced it in October 1972.

Sign including instructions written with the Somali alphabet.

Archaeological excavations and research in Somalia uncovered ancient inscriptionsin a distinct writing script. In an 1878 report to the Royal Geographical Society of Great Britain, scientist J.M. Hildebrandt noted upon visiting the area that "we know from ancient authors that these districts, at present so desert, were formerly populous and civilised[...] I also discovered ancient ruins and rock-inscriptions both in pictures and characters[...] These have hitherto not been deciphered."


Old Somali stone tablet: After Somali had lost its ancient writing script, Somali scholars over the following centuries developed a writing system known as Wadaad's writing to transcribe the language.

14th century stone tablet in Wadaad's writing. The Arabic script was introduced to Somalia in the 13th century

The Osmanya alphabet is a writing script created to transcribe the Somali language. It was invented between 1920 and 1922 .

The Borama alphabet is a writing script for the Somali language. It was devised around 1933 


The Kaddare alphabet is a writing script created to transcribe Somali, The orthography was invented in 1952

Ministry of Information and National Guidance, Somalia, The writing of the Somali language, (Ministry of Information and National Guidance: 1974), p.5

 Royal Geographical Society (Great Britain), Proceedings of the Royal Geographical Society of London, Volume 22, "Mr. J. M. Hildebrandt on his Travels in East Africa", (Edward Stanford: 1878), p. 447.

Abdullahi, Mohamed Diriye (2001). Culture and customs of Somalia. Greenwood. ISBN 978-0-313-31333-2.

David D., Laitin (1977). Politics, language, and thought: the Somali experience. University of Chicago Press. ISBN 0-226-46791-0.

Lewis, I.M (1958). "The Gadabuursi Somali Script". Bulletin of the School of Oriental and African Studies (SOAS) 21: 134–56.doi:10.1017/S0041977X00063278. Retrieved 2009-09-04.

I.M. Lewis (1958) Bulletin of the School of Oriental and African Studies, University of London, Vol. 21 pp 134–156.

David D. Laitin, Politics, language, and thought: the Somali experience, (University of Chicago Press: 1977)

More Facts & Info....

Marco Polo
Madagascar gets its current name from Marco Polo, (1254 — 1324), the Venetian explorer, who described an African island of untold wealth called Madeigascar in his memoirs (1298 - 1320).
Polo heard about the island second-hand during his travels in Asia (1271 - 1295). 


Most scholars believe that he described Mogadishu, the port located in present-day Somalia. Nevertheless, Italian cartographers attached the name "Madagascar" to the island during the Renaissance.

Business only business, 2009. “Country: Madagascar” [Online]. Businessonlybusiness wesite ’09. Available at:

Polo, Marco (1350). "The Travels of Marco Polo - World Digital Library" (in Old French). Retrieved 2014-11-25.

Somalis knew that the mosquito was the source of malaria long before it was scientifically proven in the west. This is why Somalis have only one word for both mosquitoes and malaria – kaneeco.
 In the book ‘First Footsteps in East Africa’ by Richard Burton published in 1856, the author mentioned how the Somalis believed that the mosquito bites were responsible for the deadly fevers (malaria). In his documentation of this, Richard Burton dismissed this Somali indigenous knowledge as superstition.


40 years after the publication of Richard Burton comments Somalis were proven right when Sir Ronald Ross who was born in England discovered that the Mosquitoes were in fact the cause of Malaria. 


First footsteps in East Africa (An Exploration of Harar) by Richard Burton, 1854

Nye, Edwin R (2002). "Alphonse Laveran (1845–1922): discoverer of the malarial parasite and Nobel laureate, 1907". Journal of Medical Biography 10 (2): 81–7. PMID 11956550.

Somali old coinage system
Mogadishu currency was an old coinage system dating from the medieval trading empire of Mogadishu when it centralized its commercial hegemony by minting its own coins to facilitate regional trade. During the 1300s, Mogadishu established its own Mogadishu currency for its medieval trading empire in the Indian Ocean. The coins beared the names of 23 successive Sultans of Mogadishu. The oldest pieces date back to 1323-24 


Sultanate of Mogadishu currency

Mogadishan coins were in widespread circulation, and have been found as far away as modern United Arab Emirates where a coin bearing the name of a 15th century Somali Sultan Ali b. The coins continued to be minted until the 1700s.

"Northeast African Studies, Volume 2". 1995. p. 24.

"The Numismatic Chronicle". 1978. p. 188.

Proceedings of the Seminar for Arabian Studies, Volume 1. The Seminar. 1970. p. 42. ISBN 0231107145. Retrieved 28 February 2015.